Trehan K, Kemp CD, and Yang SC. Simulation in cardiothoracic surgical training: where do we stand?. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg.2014 Jan;147(1):18-24.e2.

PMID: 24331908

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:
Simulation may reduce the risks associated with the complex operations of cardiothoracic surgery and help create a more efficient, thorough, and uniform curriculum for cardiothoracic surgery fellowship. Here, we review the current status of simulation in cardiothoracic surgical training and provide an overview of all simulation models applicable to cardiothoracic surgery that have been published to date.

METHODS:
We completed a comprehensive search of all publications pertaining to simulation of cardiothoracic surgical procedures by using PubMed.

RESULTS:
Numerous cardiothoracic surgical simulators at various stages of development, assessment, and commercial manufacturing have been published to date. There is currently a predominance of models simulating coronary artery bypass grafting and bronchoscopy and a relative paucity of simulators of open pulmonary and esophageal procedures. Despite the wide range of simulators available, few models have been formally assessed for validity and educational value.

CONCLUSIONS:
Surgical simulation is becoming an increasingly important educational tool in training cardiothoracic surgeons. Our next steps forward will be to develop an objective, standardized way to assess surgical simulation training compared with the current apprenticeship model.